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Despite the fact that marine renewable energy sources could meet almost all of humankind’s electricity needs, they accounted for only 0.4% of global electricity generation in 2020, less than 0.1% of the energy mix. Research institutes in France are looking to accelerate the development of these alternative sources. Several technologies exist: offshore wind power using kinetic energy (speed of wind), tidal power (tidal waves), hydrokinetic energy (tidal streams), wave energy (waves generated by the wind), ocean thermal energy conversion, marine biomass, floating solar power and osmotic power. Due to the hostile ocean environment, it is not easy to deploy this infrastructure and the costs of doing so are often prohibitive. However, if the European Union is to meet the carbon neutrality targets set out in the Paris Agreement, it must achieve a 30-fold increase in the generation capacity of marine energy sources by 2050.


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